A newer version of this documentation is available.

View the latest version

Configuring WAN Replication

WAN Replication is defined and configured using the wan-replication configuration element as can be seen in the above examples.

In this section you learn how to establish the connection between WAN replicated clusters and configure the behavior of WAN replication mechanism.

For establishing the connection, you have the following options:

  • using static endpoints (when you want to provide the IP addresses of target IMDG members)

  • using Discovery SPI (when you want to target IMDG members on various cloud infrastructures)

    You can use only one of these (not both) when defining a single WAN publisher.

The examples in this section uses Hazelcast’s built-in WAN replication implementation. This implementation meets most of your WAN replication needs and is configured using the batch-publisher element, which you will see in the below examples. Hazelcast also allows you to build your own implementation; see the Advanced Features section for details in case you need more custom configurations.

The default settings for WAN Replication configuration suit most use cases. If, however, you have specific needs or if you would like to fine-tune the behavior of WAN Replication for your application, see the Fine-Tuning WAN Replication section.

Let’s see how we configure a simple WAN replication using the static endpoints and Discovery SPI, and then let’s see the configuration details of Hazelcast’s built-in WAN replication implementation.

Using the Static Endpoints

This is most suitable when the endpoints have static IP addresses which will not change for the duration of the lifecycle of the source cluster. You will then list these addresses in the WAN publisher configuration and WAN Replication will try to keep a stable connection to each of those.

Below is an example of declarative configuration of WAN Replication between two Hazelcast clusters. Here, we show the configuration that is needed on the source ("active") cluster. In most cases, the target ("passive") cluster does not need any kind of configuration and configuring the source cluster is enough for WAN Replication to function normally.

Here, we show the simplest working configurations to replicate to a target cluster with the cluster-name london.

  • XML

  • YAML

  • Java

<hazelcast>
    ...
    <wan-replication name="london-wan-rep">
        <batch-publisher>
            <cluster-name>london</cluster-name>
            <target-endpoints>10.3.5.1:5701, 10.3.5.2:5701</target-endpoints>
        </batch-publisher>
    </wan-replication>

    <map name="replicatedMap">
        <wan-replication-ref name="london-wan-rep"/>
        ...
    </map>

    <cache name="replicatedCache">
        <wan-replication-ref name="london-wan-rep"/>
        ...
    </cache>
    ...
</hazelcast>
hazelcast:
  wan-replication:
    london-wan-rep:
      batch-publisher:
        cluster-name: london
        target-endpoints: 10.3.5.1:5701, 10.3.5.2:5701
  map:
    replicatedMap:
      wan-replication-ref:
        london-wan-rep:
          ...
  cache:
    replicatedCache:
      wan-replication-ref:
        london-wan-rep:
          ...
        Config config = new Config();
        WanBatchPublisherConfig batchPublisherConfig = new WanBatchPublisherConfig()
                .setClusterName("london")
                .setTargetEndpoints("10.3.5.1:5701,10.3.5.2:5701");

        WanConsumerConfig consumerConfig = new WanConsumerConfig()
                .setPersistWanReplicatedData(false);

        WanReplicationConfig wrConfig = new WanReplicationConfig()
                .setName("london-wan-rep")
                .addBatchReplicationPublisherConfig(batchPublisherConfig)
                .setConsumerConfig(consumerConfig);

        config.addWanReplicationConfig(wrConfig);

        config.getMapConfig("replicatedMap").setWanReplicationRef(new WanReplicationRef().setName("london-wan-rep"));
        config.getCacheConfig("replicatedCache").setWanReplicationRef(new WanReplicationRef().setName("london-wan-rep"));

We can see that we have configured the map named replicatedMap and cache named replicatedCache to replicate to the cluster named london on two endpoints - 10.3.5.1:5701, 10.3.5.2:5701. The london cluster might have more members than these two but only these two will receive WAN events and forward them to other members in the london cluster or to other clusters if WAN event forwarding is enabled. Please notice that the WAN Replication configuration is referenced in map and cache configuration by name, here london-wan-rep.

The default settings for WAN Replication will suit most use cases. If, however, you have specific needs or if you would like to fine-tune the behavior of WAN Replication for your application, please refer to the Fine-Tuning WAN Replication section section for more information.

Using the Discovery SPI

In addition to defining target cluster endpoints with static IP addresses, you can configure WAN to work with the Discovery SPI and determine the endpoint IP addresses at runtime. It may be suitable when you don’t know the list of static IP addresses of the target cluster at startup time or in cases when the list of available target endpoints is subject to change during the lifecycle of the source cluster.

In relation to the above, using the Discovery SPI allows you to use WAN with endpoints on various cloud infrastructures (such as Amazon EC2 or GCP Compute) where the IP address is not known in advance. Typically you use a readily available Discovery SPI plugin such as Hazelcast AWS discovery plugin, Hazelcast Azure discovery plugin, Hazelcast GCP discovery plugin, or similar. You can store the list of IP addresses in those infrastructures and use these plugins to read from that list.

For more advanced cases, you can provide your own Discovery SPI implementation with custom logic for determining the WAN target endpoints such as looking up the endpoints in some service registry or even reading the endpoint addresses from a file.

When using the Discovery SPI, WAN always connects to the public address of the members returned by the Discovery SPI implementation. This is opposite to the cluster membership mechanism using the Discovery SPI where a member connects to a different member in the same cluster through its private address. Should you prefer for WAN to use the private address of the discovered member as well, please use the use-endpoint-private-address publisher element, described in the following paragraphs.

The following is an example of setting up the WAN replication with the AWS discovery plugin. Note that you must have hazelcast-all (or hazelcast-aws) JAR on the classpath.

  • XML

  • YAML

  • Java

<hazelcast>
    ...
    <wan-replication name="london-wan-rep">
        <batch-publisher>
            <cluster-name>london</cluster-name>
            <discovery-strategies>
                <discovery-strategy enabled="true" class="com.hazelcast.aws.AwsDiscoveryStrategy">
                    <properties>
                        <property name="access-key">test-access-key</property>
                        <property name="secret-key">test-secret-key</property>
                        <property name="region">test-region</property>
                        <property name="iam-role">test-iam-role</property>
                        <property name="host-header">ec2.test-host-header</property>
                        <property name="security-group-name">test-security-group-name</property>
                        <property name="tag-key">test-tag-key</property>
                        <property name="tag-value">test-tag-value</property>
                        <property name="connection-timeout-seconds">10</property>
                        <property name="hz-port">5701</property>
                    </properties>
                </discovery-strategy>
            </discovery-strategies>
        </batch-publisher>
    </wan-replication>

    <map name="replicatedMap">
        <wan-replication-ref name="london-wan-rep"/>
        ...
    </map>

    <cache name="replicatedCache">
        <wan-replication-ref name="london-wan-rep"/>
        ...
    </cache>
    ...
</hazelcast>
hazelcast:
  wan-replication:
    london-wan-rep:
      batch-publisher:
        cluster-name: london
        discovery-strategies:
          discovery-strategy:
            - enabled: true
              class: com.hazelcast.aws.AwsDiscoveryStrategy
              properties:
                access-key: test-access-key
                secret-key: test-secret-key
                region: test-region
                iam-role: test-iam-role
                host-header: ec2.test-host-header
                security-group-name: test-security-group-name
                tag-key: test-tag-key
                tag-value: test-tag-value
                connection-timeout-seconds: 10
                hz-port: 5701
        Config config = new Config();

        WanBatchPublisherConfig batchPublisherConfig = new WanBatchPublisherConfig()
                .setClusterName("london");

        DiscoveryStrategyConfig discoveryStrategyConfig = new DiscoveryStrategyConfig("com.hazelcast.aws.AwsDiscoveryStrategy");
        discoveryStrategyConfig.addProperty("access-key","test-access-key");
        discoveryStrategyConfig.addProperty("secret-key","test-secret-key");
        discoveryStrategyConfig.addProperty("region","test-region");
        discoveryStrategyConfig.addProperty("iam-role","test-iam-role");
        discoveryStrategyConfig.addProperty("host-header","ec2.test-host-header");
        discoveryStrategyConfig.addProperty("security-group-name","test-security-group-name");
        discoveryStrategyConfig.addProperty("tag-key","test-tag-key");
        discoveryStrategyConfig.addProperty("tag-value","test-tag-value");
        discoveryStrategyConfig.addProperty("hz-port",5702);

        DiscoveryConfig discoveryConfig = new DiscoveryConfig()
                .addDiscoveryStrategyConfig(discoveryStrategyConfig);
        batchPublisherConfig.setDiscoveryConfig(discoveryConfig);

        WanReplicationConfig wrConfig = new WanReplicationConfig()
                .setName("london-wan-rep")
                .addBatchReplicationPublisherConfig(batchPublisherConfig);
        config.addWanReplicationConfig(wrConfig);

        config.getMapConfig("replicatedMap").setWanReplicationRef(new WanReplicationRef().setName("london-wan-rep"));
        config.getCacheConfig("replicatedCache").setWanReplicationRef(new WanReplicationRef().setName("london-wan-rep"));

The hz-port property defines the port or the port range on which the target endpoint is running. The default port range 5701-5708 is used if this property is not defined. This is needed because the Amazon API which the AWS plugin uses does not provide the port on which Hazelcast is running, only the IP address. For some other Discovery SPI implementations, this might not be necessary and it might discover the port as well, e.g., by looking up in a service registry.

The other properties are the same as when using the aws element. In case of AWS discovery you can configure the WAN replication using the aws element. You may use either the discovery-strategies or aws element, but not both at the same time.

  • XML

  • YAML

<hazelcast>
    ...
    <wan-replication name="london-wan-rep">
        <batch-publisher>
            <cluster-name>london</cluster-name>
            <use-endpoint-private-address>false</use-endpoint-private-address>
            <aws enabled="true">
                <access-key>my-access-key</access-key>
                <secret-key>my-secret-key</secret-key>
                <region>us-west-1</region>
                <security-group-name>hazelcast-sg</security-group-name>
                <tag-key>type</tag-key>
                <tag-value>hz-members</tag-value>
                <hz-port>5701</hz-port>
            </aws>
        </batch-publisher>
    </wan-replication>

    <map name="replicatedMap">
        <wan-replication-ref name="london-wan-rep"/>
        ...
    </map>

    <cache name="replicatedCache">
        <wan-replication-ref name="london-wan-rep"/>
        ...
    </cache>
    ...
</hazelcast>
hazelcast:
  wan-replication:
    london-wan-rep:
      batch-publisher:
        cluster-name: london
        use-endpoint-private-address: false
        aws:
          enabled: true
            access-key: my-access-key
            secret-key: my-secret-key
            region: us-west-1
            security-group-name: hazelcast-sg
            tag-key: type
            tag-value: hz-members
            hz-port: 5701
  map:
    replicatedMap:
      wan-replication-ref:
        london-wan-rep:
          ...
  cache:
    replicatedCache:
      wan-replication-ref:
        london-wan-rep:
          ...

See the following for the configurations of WAN replications in other cloud infrastructures that are supported by Discovery SPI:

Using the Built-In WAN Batch Publisher

Hazelcast IMDG offers the built-in WAN batch publisher implementation for WAN replication.

As you see in the above configuration examples, this implementation is specified simply by using the batch-publisher element (in the declarative configuration) or the WanBatchPublisherConfig class (in the programmatic configuration) when defining a WAN replication publisher.

The WAN batch publisher transmits WAN events (map and cache updates) between clusters in batches. It waits until:

Here is a declarative example on using and configuring batch-publisher:

  • XML

  • YAML

<hazelcast>
    <wan-replication name="london-wan-rep">
        <batch-publisher>
            <cluster-name>london</cluster-name>
            ...
        </batch-publisher>
    </wan-replication>

    <map name="replicatedMap">
        <wan-replication-ref name="london-wan-rep"/>
    </map>

    <cache name="replicatedCache">
        <wan-replication-ref name="london-wan-rep"/>
    </cache>
</hazelcast>
hazelcast:
  wan-replication:
    london-wan-rep:
      batch-publisher:
        cluster-name: london
        ...
  map:
    replicatedMap:
      wan-replication-ref:
        london-wan-rep:
          ...
  cache:
    replicatedCache:
      wan-replication-ref:
        london-wan-rep:
          ...

Above, you notice that we have configured the instance to replicate a map and a cache to a target cluster with the cluster name london. WAN Replication will check that this cluster name matches during connection establishment to each endpoint. This does not serve as a security measure though. This serves only to prevent misconfiguration where the source cluster would mistakenly replicate to the wrong cluster and as an attempt to detect and prevent loops where the same WAN event would be infinitely forwarded between the same clusters.

The wan-replication configuration element defines a single WAN replication scheme. Hazelcast maps and caches are configured to replicate to a single WAN replication scheme and different maps and different caches can be configured to replicate to different WAN replication schemes. Simply put, a WAN replication scheme may be viewed as several target clusters and different Hazelcast structures can replicate to different target clusters simultaneously. As such, a single WAN replication scheme can contain multiple WAN replication publishers. It has the following essential sub-elements and attributes:

  • name: Name of your WAN replication scheme. This name is referenced in IMap or ICache configuration when you want to enable WAN Replication for these data structures (using the element wan-replication-ref in the configuration of IMap or ICache).

  • batch-publisher: Enables use of a WAN publisher which uses the built-in WAN replication implementation. It defines how to connect to the target cluster and how WAN events are sent to a specific target endpoint. As mentioned above, just before the configuration example, the target endpoints can be a different cluster defined by static IPs or discovered using a cloud discovery mechanism.

The batch-publisher has the following sub-elements:

  • cluster-name: Sets the cluster name used as an endpoint cluster name for authentication on the target endpoint. If there is no separate publisher ID element defined, this cluster name is also used as a WAN publisher ID. This ID is then used for identifying the publisher in a WAN replication scheme. It is mandatory to set this attribute.

  • publisher-id: Sets the publisher ID used to identify the publisher in a WAN replication scheme. Setting this ID may be useful when the wan-replication element contains multiple WAN publishers and the cluster names are not unique for all of the WAN replication publishers in a single WAN replication scheme. It is optional to set this attribute. If this ID is not specified, the cluster-name is used as a publisher ID.

  • target-endpoints: IP addresses and ports of the cluster members for which the WAN replication is implemented. It is enough to specify some of the member IP/ports available in the target cluster, i.e., you don’t need to provide the IP/ports of all members in there. WAN does not perform the discovery of other members in the target cluster; it only expects that the IP addresses you provide are available.

  • sync: Configuration for the WAN sync mechanism. See the Synchronizing WAN Clusters section.

  • discovery-strategies: Set its enabled attribute to true for discovery in various cloud infrastructures. You can define multiple discovery strategies using the discovery-strategy sub-element and its elements. See the Using the Discovery SPI section for this and the below elements.

  • aws: Configuration for discovery strategy for Amazon EC2 discovery plugin.

  • gcp: Configuration for discovery strategy for Google cloud platform discovery plugin.

  • azure: Configuration for discovery strategy for Microsoft Azure discovery plugin.

  • kubernetes: Configuration for discovery strategy for Kubernetes discovery plugin.

  • eureka: Configuration for discovery strategy for Eureka discovery plugin.

Using this configuration, the cluster replicates to a cluster with the name london. The london cluster should have a similar configuration if you want to run in Active-Active mode.

You can achieve various WAN topologies using different configurations on different clusters. For instance, if the New York and London cluster configurations contain the wan-replication element and the Tokyo cluster does not, it might mean that the New York and London clusters are active endpoints and Tokyo is a passive endpoint.